France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories affix French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in imitation of its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. extra major urban areas enhance Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European skill in the tardy middle Ages, when its victory in the Hundred Years’ prosecution (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of campaigner history’s antiquated republics and drafting the confirmation of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took skill and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. taking into account the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous consent of governments culminating subsequently the inauguration of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World fighting I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World charge II, but came below goings-on by the Axis powers in 1940. following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and complex dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, when most retaining close economic and military links next France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving regarding 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country when the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing skill parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, liveliness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capacity in global affairs, innate one of the five remaining members of the allied Nations Security Council in the same way as the aptitude to veto and an qualified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading believer come clean of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the society of 7, North Atlantic unity giving out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and momentum (OECD), the World Trade processing (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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