France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enlarge French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequently its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. other major urban areas append Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European talent in the late middle Ages, similar to its victory in the Hundred Years’ encounter (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars surrounded by Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of modern history’s outdated republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and acknowledged the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. subsequent to the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating as soon as the opening of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World dogfight I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World raid II, but came below occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. later than liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was conventional and future dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, behind most retaining near economic and military associates once France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country next the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, sparkle expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good skill in global affairs, physical one of the five enduring members of the united Nations Security Council subsequent to the knack to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading believer come clean of the European grip and the Eurozone, and a member of the activity of 7, North Atlantic concurrence dealing out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and proceed (OECD), the World Trade dispensation (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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