France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tote up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic past its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. other major urban areas adjoin Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The pact of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European knack in the late middle Ages, taking into account its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars surrounded by Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military skill in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of ahead of its time history’s very old republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took facility and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. considering the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating in imitation of the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World case I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World warfare II, but came under movement by the Axis powers in 1940. later than liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and vanguard dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, in imitation of most retaining close economic and military associates considering France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving roughly 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country past the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing skill parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, vivaciousness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capability in global affairs, innate one of the five remaining members of the associated Nations Security Council in the manner of the talent to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading believer let in of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic concurrence management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and improve (OECD), the World Trade meting out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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