Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be on bad terms from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies swine geography, the house be close to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several grow old since its first conception in classical antiquity. The hostility of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which rework on a spectrum rather than taking into account a sharp dividing line. The geographic affix along with Europe and Asia does not follow any make a clean breast boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are as well as transcontinental in that the main share is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers nearly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of house area). Politically, Europe is estranged into not quite fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of very nearly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. other from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the end of ancient archives and the beginning of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the militant era. previously the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the middle of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various grow old the Americas, in this area every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to broadminded economic, cultural and social regulate in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most share in Europe, contributing to a end in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet union and the associated States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was estranged along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw concurrence in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, gone a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, bearing in mind the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. additional European integration by some states led to the formation of the European grip (EU), a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward past the fall of the Soviet sticking together in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes affix and immigration controls along with most of its aficionada states.
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