Europe is a continent located enormously in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost ration of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be at odds from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies living thing geography, the estate border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several period since its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which adjust upon a spectrum rather than like a brilliant dividing line. The geographic border amid Europe and Asia does not follow any declare boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are afterward transcontinental in that the main ration is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in new continents.
Europe covers approximately 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is on bad terms into virtually fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of approximately 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. supplementary from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the end of ancient chronicles and the dawn of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the modern era. previously the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amongst the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various become old the Americas, vis–vis every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to advocate economic, cultural and social fiddle with in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decrease in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet union and the joined States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain in the middle of NATO in the West and the Warsaw unity in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in imitation of a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, past the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. new European integration by some states led to the formation of the European bond (EU), a sever political entity that lies in the midst of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the fall of the Soviet union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes connect and immigration controls in the middle of most of its aficionada states.
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