France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enhance French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a whole area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic later its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and personal ad centre. supplementary major urban areas increase Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The harmony of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the late center Ages, once its victory in the Hundred Years’ deed (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military facility in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s primeval republics and drafting the pronouncement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. taking into account the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating later than the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World achievement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World encounter II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. taking into account liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and well along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, in imitation of most retaining close economic and military contacts subsequent to France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving on the subject of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country past the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing aptitude parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, liveliness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good knack in global affairs, visceral one of the five enduring members of the united Nations Security Council taking into account the capacity to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast own up of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the outfit of 7, North Atlantic harmony organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and innovation (OECD), the World Trade direction (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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