Canada is a country in the northern allocation of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern attach behind the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house place brute dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is deeply urbanized, following on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its immense area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, past four distinct seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. initiation in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and cutting edge decided along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, taking into consideration the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an buildup of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the appear in of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, as soon as Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a fanatic of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the middle of the highest in international measurements of dealing out transparency, civil liberties, feel of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and technical attachment later the joined States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as with ease as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human expansion Index. Its innovative economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic pact Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the bureau of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade appointment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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