France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories combine French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combination area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic as soon as its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. additional major urban areas add up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the tardy middle Ages, like its victory in the Hundred Years’ suit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of advanced history’s antediluvian republics and drafting the support of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the same way as the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating once the launch of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World lawsuit I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World raid II, but came under commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. with liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and well along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, like most retaining close economic and military connections bearing in mind France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving on the subject of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country later than the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing facility parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, simulation expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great aptitude in global affairs, inborn one of the five unshakable members of the united Nations Security Council as soon as the gift to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast confess of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the charity of 7, North Atlantic deal giving out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and go ahead (OECD), the World Trade doling out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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