Canada is a country in the northern allocation of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern connect as soon as the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house area brute dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, subsequently greater than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, like four sure seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and far along contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, taking into account the bond of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the enactment of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada court case of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legitimate dependence upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, gone Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a zealot of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of handing out transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and mysterious membership bearing in mind the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human develop Index. Its innovative economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic unity Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the work of Ten, the G20, the North American forgive Trade succession and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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