Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory with includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera make Spain the isolated European country to have a innate be close to later than an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are furthermore allocation of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small home boundary considering Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; extra major urban areas adjoin Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula just about 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along past ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came below Roman declare regarding 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based upon the earlier Phoenician pronounce Sp(a)n or Spania. At the stop of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and standard relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly fuse every enduring independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was next documented as Hispania.
In the to come eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to regard as being most of the peninsula in the year 726, rejection isolated a handful of little Christian realms in the north and lasting occurring to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering get older across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the foundation of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to viewpoint the invasion. similar to the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the tardy 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs.
In the in the future innovative period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving behind a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken original language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were furthermore many advancements in the arts, later world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most renowned Spanish college work, Don Quixote, was along with published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, as soon as King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a tall income country, past the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing capability parity. It is a devotee of the joined Nations (UN), the European bond (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the management of Ibero-American States (OEI), the sticking together for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic deal direction (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and forward movement (OECD), executive for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade supervision (WTO) and many additional international organisations. while not an credited member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in all summit, which makes Spain a de facto believer of the group.
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