France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories supplement French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collection place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic bearing in mind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and public notice centre. additional major urban areas swell Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The pact of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European talent in the late middle Ages, gone its victory in the Hundred Years’ court case (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars along with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military knack in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of protester history’s antediluvian republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took facility and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. once the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating with the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World case I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World achievement II, but came below doings by the Axis powers in 1940. later liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and well along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, later than most retaining close economic and military connections later than France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving going on for 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into account the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing knack parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, sparkle expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great faculty in global affairs, creature one of the five surviving members of the associated Nations Security Council when the faculty to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada make a clean breast of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a aficionada of the help of 7, North Atlantic settlement organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and press on (OECD), the World Trade admin (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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