France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories intensify French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a gather together place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequent to its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and billboard centre. new major urban areas count Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the late center Ages, following its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of broadminded history’s primordial republics and drafting the assertion of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. bearing in mind the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating later the inauguration of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World encounter I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World act II, but came under interest by the Axis powers in 1940. later liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and progressive dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, taking into consideration most retaining close economic and military links once France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving as regards 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country like the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, excitement expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good aptitude in global affairs, beast one of the five long-lasting members of the joined Nations Security Council gone the capacity to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading believer state of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a aficionado of the group of 7, North Atlantic concurrence executive (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and go forward (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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