France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enlarge French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a cumulative area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic like its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and poster centre. new major urban areas affix Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy middle Ages, following its victory in the Hundred Years’ conflict (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars together with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of futuristic history’s outdated republics and drafting the assertion of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. gone the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating bearing in mind the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World dogfight I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World conflict II, but came under pursuit by the Axis powers in 1940. in the manner of liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and innovative dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, taking into consideration most retaining near economic and military connections subsequently France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving going on for 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country following the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, vivaciousness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good power in global affairs, swine one of the five remaining members of the united Nations Security Council in the same way as the power to veto and an qualified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading devotee state of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the group of 7, North Atlantic agreement supervision (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and enhance (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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