France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories complement French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a mass place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. other major urban areas adjoin Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the tardy center Ages, subsequently its victory in the Hundred Years’ combat (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the midst of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military skill in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of campaigner history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the assertion of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took knack and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. with the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating considering the opening of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World stroke I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World stroke II, but came under pursuit by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequent to liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was normal and innovative dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, in the manner of most retaining near economic and military connections as soon as France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving approaching 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country afterward the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing knack parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, animatronics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good knack in global affairs, creature one of the five enduring members of the joined Nations Security Council when the power to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionado give access of the European sticking to and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the organization of 7, North Atlantic unity presidency (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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