France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories attach French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a entire sum place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic later its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and personal ad centre. extra major urban areas intensify Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European skill in the tardy middle Ages, when its victory in the Hundred Years’ feat (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars together with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military faculty in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of objector history’s primeval republics and drafting the pronouncement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took facility and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. with the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous agreement of governments culminating subsequently the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World warfare I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World war II, but came under endeavor by the Axis powers in 1940. later than liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was received and forward-thinking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, following most retaining close economic and military associates gone France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving on 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country past the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing aptitude parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, enthusiasm expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capacity in global affairs, monster one of the five steadfast members of the associated Nations Security Council bearing in mind the faculty to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate confess of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic pact paperwork (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and go forward (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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