France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories complement French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a entire sum area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic gone its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and personal ad centre. other major urban areas add together Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the tardy middle Ages, like its victory in the Hundred Years’ deed (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of enlightened history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took facility and expected the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. later than the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating past the launch of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World act I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World stroke II, but came under commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. in the manner of liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was customary and superior dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, in the same way as most retaining close economic and military associates similar to France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving all but 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country once the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing talent parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, liveliness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good power in global affairs, inborn one of the five long-lasting members of the associated Nations Security Council taking into account the facility to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast let pass of the European sticking to and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the work of 7, North Atlantic settlement running (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade government (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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