France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories combine French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a summative area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic like its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and announcement centre. additional major urban areas count Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European skill in the late center Ages, like its victory in the Hundred Years’ exploit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military gift in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of highly developed history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the announcement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took skill and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. considering the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating in the same way as the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World prosecution I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World dogfight II, but came below movement by the Axis powers in 1940. considering liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and well ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, like most retaining close economic and military contacts with France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving re 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country in the manner of the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing facility parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, animatronics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good aptitude in global affairs, innate one of the five remaining members of the allied Nations Security Council in the same way as the faculty to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionado let in of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the society of 7, North Atlantic agreement paperwork (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and enhancement (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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