Canada is a country in the northern share of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern connect later than the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home place physical dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, in the same way as on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, as soon as four definite seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years since European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and well ahead contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, once the bond of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an growth of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the undertaking of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of authentic need upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, later Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a zealot of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of handing out transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and perplexing relationship behind the united States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as skillfully as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human momentum Index. Its objector economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic settlement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the society of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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