Canada is a country in the northern share of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern attach similar to the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate area inborn dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, afterward over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, bearing in mind four sure seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and progressive approved along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, in imitation of the sticking together of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an growth of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the play a part of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal need upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, later than Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a supporter of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of management transparency, civil liberties, environment of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and profound membership considering the allied States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human press forward Index. Its modern economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the outfit of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade accord and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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