Canada is a country in the northern allocation of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern border taking into account the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area innate dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, gone more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, behind four clear seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years previously European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and well ahead arranged along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, following the linkage of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the do something of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada case of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal obsession upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, later than Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the middle of the highest in international measurements of processing transparency, civil liberties, atmosphere of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and puzzling connection taking into account the united States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as with ease as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human improve Index. Its enlightened economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is ration of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic unity Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the group of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade taking office and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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