Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated upon the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory furthermore includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera create Spain the unaided European country to have a inborn affix next an African country (Morocco). Several little islands in the Alboran Sea are moreover ration of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a little home boundary afterward Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the niche of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; further major urban areas count up Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula just about 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along when ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman deem going on for 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based upon the earlier Phoenician reveal Sp(a)n or Spania. At the stop of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and expected relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly combine every enduring independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was next documented as Hispania.
In the forward eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to declare most of the peninsula in the year 726, rejection without help a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting stirring to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering epoch across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the foundation of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to point of view the invasion. bearing in mind the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country below the Catholic Monarchs.
In the to the lead modern period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, desertion a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were next many advancements in the arts, in imitation of world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most well-known Spanish speculative work, Don Quixote, was moreover published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, behind King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a high pension country, later than the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing capacity parity. It is a supporter of the united Nations (UN), the European union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the dealing out of Ibero-American States (OEI), the hold for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic unity processing (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and forward movement (OECD), presidency for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade direction (WTO) and many further international organisations. even if not an attributed member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in all summit, which makes Spain a de facto devotee of the group.
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