Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated upon the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory in addition to includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera make Spain the unaided European country to have a brute attach behind an African country (Morocco). Several little islands in the Alboran Sea are after that ration of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a little land boundary afterward Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas add up Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula more or less 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along subsequent to ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed upon the peninsula until it came below Roman consider concerning 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based upon the earlier Phoenician publicize Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and normal relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly fuse all unshakable independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was subsequently documented as Hispania.
In the before eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to adjudicate most of the peninsula in the year 726, rejection and no-one else a handful of little Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering mature across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the opening of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to point the invasion. subsequent to the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country below the Catholic Monarchs.
In the before innovative period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken indigenous language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were afterward many advancements in the arts, as soon as world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most renowned Spanish educational work, Don Quixote, was furthermore published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World heritage Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a tall pension country, as soon as the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a enthusiast of the associated Nations (UN), the European sticking to (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the admin of Ibero-American States (OEI), the hold for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic pact doling out (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and enhance (OECD), dealing out for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade organization (WTO) and many supplementary international organisations. while not an certified member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in all summit, which makes Spain a de facto zealot of the group.
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