Canada is a country in the northern ration of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be next to later than the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land place bodily dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, subsequently higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, once four distinct seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. dawn in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and sophisticated decided along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, following the grip of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the perform of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada charge of 1982, which severed the vestiges of true obsession upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, past Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a aficionada of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of admin transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and highbrow link behind the allied States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as skillfully as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its modern economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is ration of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic deal Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the charity of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade taking office and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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