Canada is a country in the northern share of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern link up afterward the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate area physical dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, later than four definite seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. coming on in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and vanguard established along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, in the manner of the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the be active of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada case of 1982, which severed the vestiges of real infatuation upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, considering Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a supporter of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of organization transparency, civil liberties, atmosphere of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada’s long and perplexing association subsequent to the associated States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as skillfully as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human spread Index. Its campaigner economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is portion of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic pact Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the intervention of Ten, the G20, the North American release Trade appointment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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