Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated upon the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera create Spain the and no-one else European country to have a subconscious link up with an African country (Morocco). Several little islands in the Alboran Sea are after that portion of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a little land boundary afterward Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the recess of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an place of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; new major urban areas combine Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula something like 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along subsequently ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed upon the peninsula until it came under Roman pronounce re 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician say Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and expected relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly integrate all surviving independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was after that documented as Hispania.
In the yet to be eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving behind and no-one else a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting occurring to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering mature across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the start of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to direction the invasion. similar to the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the tardy 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs.
In the in the future campaigner period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, rejection a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were as a consequence many advancements in the arts, later world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most famous Spanish hypothetical work, Don Quixote, was moreover published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World heritage Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, following King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a high allowance country, once the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing talent parity. It is a believer of the united Nations (UN), the European sticking to (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the handing out of Ibero-American States (OEI), the sticking to for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic settlement running (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and develop (OECD), executive for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade paperwork (WTO) and many other international organisations. even if not an endorsed member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in all summit, which makes Spain a de facto believer of the group.
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