Europe is a continent located completely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allowance of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be at odds from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies monster geography, the estate affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older previously its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which amend upon a spectrum rather than in imitation of a bright dividing line. The geographic connect amongst Europe and Asia does not follow any disclose boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are with transcontinental in that the main allowance is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of house area). Politically, Europe is divided into approximately fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of approximately 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. extra from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration mature marked the end of ancient chronicles and the beginning of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the unbiased era. in the past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amongst the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various get older the Americas, just about every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to objector economic, cultural and social modify in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most share in Europe, contributing to a terminate in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet hold and the united States took prominence. During the chilly War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw deal in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, bearing in mind a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, once the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking together (EU), a separate diplomatic entity that lies surrounded by a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes border and immigration controls along with most of its aficionado states.
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