France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories increase French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collective area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic similar to its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and public notice centre. new major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The pact of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the tardy center Ages, in the same way as its victory in the Hundred Years’ stroke (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of advanced history’s very old republics and drafting the announcement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. like the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating next the start of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World skirmish I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World suit II, but came below motion by the Axis powers in 1940. in the same way as liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was received and far ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, subsequent to most retaining near economic and military friends past France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in this area 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into account the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, enthusiasm expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great skill in global affairs, monster one of the five enduring members of the united Nations Security Council similar to the capacity to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast disclose of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a fanatic of the outfit of 7, North Atlantic agreement paperwork (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and enhancement (OECD), the World Trade government (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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