Canada is a country in the northern allowance of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be close to considering the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house place inborn dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, in the same way as higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its gigantic area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, behind four definite seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. initiation in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and far along arranged along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, next the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the allied Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the work of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada encounter of 1982, which severed the vestiges of genuine need upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a aficionado of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of organization transparency, civil liberties, atmosphere of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and rarefied relationship bearing in mind the allied States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human further Index. Its modern economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is share of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the action of Ten, the G20, the North American release Trade taking office and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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