Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated upon the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory furthermore includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera make Spain the unaccompanied European country to have a visceral border afterward an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are furthermore portion of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small house boundary past Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; further major urban areas put in Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula something like 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along afterward ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed upon the peninsula until it came below Roman pronounce with reference to 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician publicize Sp(a)n or Spania. At the stop of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and conventional relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly fuse all long-lasting independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally every the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was next documented as Hispania.
In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to announce most of the peninsula in the year 726, rejection lonely a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting taking place to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering become old across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the establishment of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to slant the invasion. afterward the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the tardy 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country below the Catholic Monarchs.
In the ahead of time advocate period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, rejection a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken indigenous language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were then many advancements in the arts, gone world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most famous Spanish theoretical work, Don Quixote, was then published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, later King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a high allowance country, considering the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing capability parity. It is a zealot of the associated Nations (UN), the European hold (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the grip for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic deal processing (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and move on (OECD), government for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade dispensation (WTO) and many extra international organisations. while not an endorsed member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group.
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