France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories intensify French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a summative area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic behind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. new major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European power in the late middle Ages, bearing in mind its victory in the Hundred Years’ stroke (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of open-minded history’s outdated republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took facility and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. afterward the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating later the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World clash I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World stroke II, but came below commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. afterward liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and forward-looking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, gone most retaining close economic and military connections behind France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving nearly 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country behind the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing aptitude parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, animatronics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good facility in global affairs, creature one of the five enduring members of the united Nations Security Council like the capacity to veto and an qualified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member welcome of the European grip and the Eurozone, and a believer of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic unity management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and early payment (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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