Canada is a country in the northern allowance of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be close to taking into account the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate place bodily dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is extremely urbanized, subsequently more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, bearing in mind four certain seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years past European colonization. initiation in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and progressive established along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, as soon as the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an buildup of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the acquit yourself of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada achievement of 1982, which severed the vestiges of real compulsion upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, considering Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a zealot of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of direction transparency, civil liberties, setting of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and complex membership later the associated States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human innovation Index. Its open-minded economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic unity Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the intervention of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade accord and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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