Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be close to taking into account the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area creature dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, considering higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its immense area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, with four positive seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. start in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and future established along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, taking into consideration the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the allied Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the decree of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada engagement of 1982, which severed the vestiges of genuine obsession on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a believer of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of doling out transparency, civil liberties, tone of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and puzzling attachment as soon as the allied States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human increase Index. Its highly developed economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is share of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic harmony Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the help of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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