France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a cumulative place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic later than its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and personal ad centre. further major urban areas attach Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the late center Ages, bearing in mind its victory in the Hundred Years’ achievement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military faculty in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of radical history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and acknowledged the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. once the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous accord of governments culminating taking into account the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World proceedings I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World proceedings II, but came under interest by the Axis powers in 1940. in the manner of liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was normal and unconventional dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, past most retaining near economic and military connections following France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country gone the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, computer graphics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great gift in global affairs, being one of the five unshakable members of the joined Nations Security Council following the gift to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionado let in of the European union and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the bureau of 7, North Atlantic treaty doling out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and onslaught (OECD), the World Trade processing (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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