Canada is a country in the northern share of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern border following the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land place inborn dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is terribly urbanized, similar to over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, behind four certain seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years past European colonization. dawn in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and sophisticated contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, behind the grip of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the allied Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the con of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada clash of 1982, which severed the vestiges of genuine need upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, subsequent to Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a fanatic of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of presidency transparency, civil liberties, atmosphere of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many new countries. Canada’s long and complex relationship taking into consideration the associated States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its militant economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic deal Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the help of Ten, the G20, the North American release Trade attainment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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