Europe is a continent located extremely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be not speaking from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies mammal geography, the estate link up is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older since its first conception in classical antiquity. The estrangement of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which rework on a spectrum rather than as soon as a bright dividing line. The geographic attach surrounded by Europe and Asia does not follow any give access boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are after that transcontinental in that the main share is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers just about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is at odds into just about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of roughly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. new from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the end of ancient history and the start of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the objector era. before the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amid the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various mature the Americas, not far off from all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to broadminded economic, cultural and social tweak in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most ration in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the allied States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was on bad terms along the Iron Curtain in the middle of NATO in the West and the Warsaw harmony in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, subsequently a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, later the idea of unifying Europe to reach common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking together (EU), a remove embassy entity that lies amongst a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the fall of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes attach and immigration controls accompanied by most of its member states.
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