France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories supplement French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combine area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic later than its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and billboard centre. extra major urban areas adjoin Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European aptitude in the tardy center Ages, later than its victory in the Hundred Years’ battle (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the company of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military knack in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of liberal history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the pronouncement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took gift and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. behind the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating subsequent to the commencement of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World raid I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World suit II, but came below commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. past liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and progressive dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, in the manner of most retaining close economic and military associates taking into account France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in the region of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequent to the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing aptitude parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, sparkle expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great aptitude in global affairs, being one of the five enduring members of the united Nations Security Council subsequent to the skill to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading believer divulge of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a member of the activity of 7, North Atlantic settlement management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and forward movement (OECD), the World Trade admin (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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