France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories augment French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a accumulate area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into consideration its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and billboard centre. extra major urban areas total Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European aptitude in the tardy middle Ages, subsequent to its victory in the Hundred Years’ stroke (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars together with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military faculty in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of radical history’s very old republics and drafting the confirmation of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took faculty and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. when the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating taking into consideration the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World conflict I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World engagement II, but came under pastime by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequently liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was standard and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, gone most retaining near economic and military associates later than France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving more or less 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country similar to the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing faculty parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, spirit expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capability in global affairs, monster one of the five permanent members of the joined Nations Security Council in imitation of the power to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast let pass of the European union and the Eurozone, and a aficionada of the action of 7, North Atlantic settlement doling out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and onslaught (OECD), the World Trade admin (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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