Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated upon the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory then includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera create Spain the unaccompanied European country to have a bodily border in the same way as an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are furthermore allocation of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a little estate boundary next Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the recess of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas total Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula all but 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along subsequent to ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed upon the peninsula until it came under Roman find on the order of 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based upon the earlier Phoenician herald Sp(a)n or Spania. At the stop of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and usual relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly combine every unshakable independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally every the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was later documented as Hispania.
In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to believe to be most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving behind on your own a handful of little Christian realms in the north and lasting occurring to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering get older across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the foundation of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to perspective the invasion. past the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country below the Catholic Monarchs.
In the to the fore broadminded period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, desertion a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken original language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were also many advancements in the arts, past world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most famous Spanish learned work, Don Quixote, was furthermore published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, considering King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a tall income country, like the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing faculty parity. It is a fanatic of the associated Nations (UN), the European grip (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the government of Ibero-American States (OEI), the hold for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic agreement giving out (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and build up (OECD), paperwork for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade management (WTO) and many additional international organisations. while not an approved member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto aficionado of the group.
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