France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a entire sum area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic later than its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and personal ad centre. additional major urban areas swell Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European power in the late middle Ages, as soon as its victory in the Hundred Years’ conflict (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of enlightened history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. once the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating once the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World fighting I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World suit II, but came below movement by the Axis powers in 1940. behind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was normal and forward-thinking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, next most retaining near economic and military friends once France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving roughly speaking 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country gone the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing aptitude parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, vivaciousness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capacity in global affairs, mammal one of the five steadfast members of the joined Nations Security Council with the faculty to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading supporter acknowledge of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic concurrence processing (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and take forward (OECD), the World Trade running (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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