France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories increase French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collective area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in the same way as its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and announcement centre. extra major urban areas tote up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The deal of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European skill in the late middle Ages, once its victory in the Hundred Years’ raid (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of highly developed history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the confirmation of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and acknowledged the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. similar to the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating next the launch of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World encounter I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World dogfight II, but came below movement by the Axis powers in 1940. taking into account liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was conventional and complex dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, as soon as most retaining close economic and military friends with France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in this area 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country once the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing aptitude parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, simulation expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good faculty in global affairs, beast one of the five surviving members of the associated Nations Security Council later than the power to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading fanatic allow in of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the organization of 7, North Atlantic agreement dispensation (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and spread (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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