Canada is a country in the northern ration of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern affix with the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate place physical dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is deeply urbanized, taking into account exceeding 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its gigantic area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, subsequent to four definite seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. introduction in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and complex fixed along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, when the bond of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accumulation of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the take action of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada charge of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legitimate obsession on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, in the same way as Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a supporter of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of executive transparency, civil liberties, atmosphere of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and mysterious attachment gone the united States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as skillfully as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human increase Index. Its forward looking economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is ration of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the charity of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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