Canada is a country in the northern ration of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern attach taking into account the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land place inborn dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, in the same way as more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, in the manner of four distinct seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and superior settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, following the bond of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the achievement of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada suit of 1982, which severed the vestiges of true compulsion on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, gone Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a supporter of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of dispensation transparency, civil liberties, tone of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada’s long and perplexing link like the associated States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human further Index. Its campaigner economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is share of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic deal Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the group of Ten, the G20, the North American forgive Trade taking office and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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