France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a amass place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic gone its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and poster centre. additional major urban areas supplement Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The pact of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the tardy center Ages, later its victory in the Hundred Years’ suit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of militant history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. subsequently the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating once the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World act I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World achievement II, but came under endeavor by the Axis powers in 1940. next liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was received and future dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, behind most retaining close economic and military friends similar to France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving all but 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country once the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, dynamism expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great gift in global affairs, being one of the five steadfast members of the joined Nations Security Council afterward the aptitude to veto and an qualified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate give leave to enter of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a aficionado of the action of 7, North Atlantic agreement management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and improve (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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