France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories intensify French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combination area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into consideration its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and billboard centre. further major urban areas augment Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the tardy middle Ages, bearing in mind its victory in the Hundred Years’ war (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of protester history’s archaic republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took faculty and acknowledged the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the manner of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating with the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World act I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World conflict II, but came below endeavor by the Axis powers in 1940. afterward liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was conventional and well ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, like most retaining near economic and military associates with France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving all but 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country in the same way as the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, dynamism expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capability in global affairs, physical one of the five unshakable members of the allied Nations Security Council bearing in mind the capacity to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot permit of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the society of 7, North Atlantic deal direction (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and increase (OECD), the World Trade running (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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