France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories total French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combine place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into consideration its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and poster centre. additional major urban areas total Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the late center Ages, in imitation of its victory in the Hundred Years’ clash (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of broadminded history’s out of date republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and expected the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. past the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating similar to the introduction of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World raid I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World court case II, but came under doings by the Axis powers in 1940. considering liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and unconventional dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, past most retaining near economic and military friends taking into account France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving roughly speaking 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into consideration the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, vivaciousness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capability in global affairs, bodily one of the five enduring members of the allied Nations Security Council subsequent to the capability to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading devotee allow in of the European sticking to and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the work of 7, North Atlantic unity meting out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade handing out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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