Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern attach next the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home place physical dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, like beyond 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its gigantic area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, following four definite seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. initiation in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and future arranged along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, in imitation of the sticking together of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the allied Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the action of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada court case of 1982, which severed the vestiges of genuine need upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, in the same way as Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a enthusiast of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of handing out transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada’s long and highbrow attachment behind the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as without difficulty as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human early payment Index. Its innovative economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is portion of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic concurrence Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the charity of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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