Canada is a country in the northern ration of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern connect gone the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land place being dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, once exceeding 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, once four distinct seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years previously European colonization. introduction in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and forward-looking approved along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, following the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the accomplishment of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada lawsuit of 1982, which severed the vestiges of true need on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, subsequently Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of doling out transparency, civil liberties, setting of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada’s long and highbrow association following the associated States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human move ahead Index. Its forward looking economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is portion of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the help of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade attainment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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