France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories improve French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic gone its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. further major urban areas tote up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European talent in the late middle Ages, like its victory in the Hundred Years’ case (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of enlightened history’s olden republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in imitation of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating behind the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World clash I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World dogfight II, but came under interest by the Axis powers in 1940. with liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and sophisticated dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, gone most retaining close economic and military contacts like France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving roughly speaking 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into account the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, energy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capability in global affairs, living thing one of the five unshakable members of the joined Nations Security Council afterward the capability to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot state of the European union and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the activity of 7, North Atlantic agreement giving out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and go forward (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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