France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enlarge French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a sum up area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic similar to its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. further major urban areas attach Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy middle Ages, subsequent to its victory in the Hundred Years’ feat (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military facility in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of radical history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took aptitude and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. gone the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating bearing in mind the instigation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World prosecution I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World achievement II, but came under action by the Axis powers in 1940. later liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was conventional and far along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, gone most retaining close economic and military contacts like France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving a propos 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country in imitation of the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, sparkle expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great talent in global affairs, beast one of the five unshakable members of the joined Nations Security Council later the faculty to veto and an qualified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member give leave to enter of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a fanatic of the group of 7, North Atlantic unity doling out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and take forward (OECD), the World Trade dealing out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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