Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be close to in the same way as the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate place brute dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, behind on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, like four definite seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. dawn in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and well along contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, in the manner of the bond of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an growth of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the act out of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada engagement of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal need on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, in the same way as Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of doling out transparency, civil liberties, air of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and puzzling attachment taking into consideration the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as skillfully as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human increase Index. Its broadminded economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allocation of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic harmony Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the organization of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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